FLORIDA 400 uses a low power x-ray tube as radiation source. The radiation level is extremely low, so that no special shielding or protection is required. Furthermore, an x-ray tube emits radiation only if it is energized. Switching of the power leads to no radiation being generated or emitted. This can be used to be absolutely safe during maintenance around the device.

The FLORIDA 400 installation is done at a custom made pipe with a special measuring window. An electrical cabinet which contains the supply and evaluation electronics is installed nearby. The internally cooled sensor allows the use of the analyzer at a wide temperature range.

To calculate mass balances for different elements the analyzer can be combined with other devices like density meters.
FLORIDA ‘s measuring principle is called x-ray fluorescence. This method is widely used in the laboratory and has been adapted for online analysis.

Results Reporting

When a process material is exposed to X-rays ionization of its atoms takes place. Ionization consists of the ejection of electrons from the atom, and occurs if the atom is exposed to radiation. X-rays are energetic enough to expel tightly held electrons from the inner orbitals of the atom. The removal of an electron in this way makes the electronic structure of the atom unstable, and electrons in higher orbitals “fall” into the lower orbital to fill the gap left behind. In falling, energy is released as a photon with an energy equal to the energy difference of the two orbitals involved. Thus, the material emits radiation, which has energy characteristic of the atoms present. This effect can be used for elemental analysis since the photon energy defines the element present while the intensity of the specific radiation correlates with the element ́s concentration.


Application example: Flotation

Knowledge of elemental concentrations is vital for efficient control of flotation process. Best results can be obtained if feed, concentrate and drainage are monitored simultaneously. FLORIDA can be used directly at the process streams to get instantaneous process data without sampling.


X-ray tubeCeramic, maximum voltage 65 kV
DetectorSilicon drift detector with internal cooling
Sensor enclosure400 mm * 300 mm * 220 mm, stainless steel
SoftwareMONACO evaluation suite with SQL database
Operating temperature-20-45 °C (environment)
Electrical cabinetStainless steel cabinet, IP 65 600 mm * 600 mm * 250 mm
ComputerEmbedded Computer , OS Linux , Web Interface
InterfacesModbus Other interfaces (serial, IP, Profibus) optionally available
Air condition Solid state cooling unit for sensor/XRT
UPSUninterrupted power supply for power conditioning optionally available
Power requirements110 V/230 V, 1000 W

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